Is %limit a number of chars allowed or a representer of length such as XXXXX represents 5, becuase your not checking if the length of %first is <= to %limit but the length of the string in limit.
maybe it should be
if ($len(%first) <= %limit) { ...

If thats not right then i would say you have a problem in the data thats being used somwehere.
replace your script with this...

alias limited {
var %first
var %amount
%amount = $did(namegen,3)
var %limit
%limit = $did(namegen,11)

echo -s $time CP1 "%amount" %amount -- "%limit" %limit -- "%limit-lenth" $len(%limit)

%first = $read(namegen\pre.txt) $+ $read(namegen\suff.txt)

echo -s $time CP2 "%amount" %amount -- "%first" %first -- "%first-length" $len(%first)

if ($len(%first) <= $len(%limit)) { did -a namegen 5 %first | goto next }
else goto begin
dec %amount

echo -s $time CP3 "%amount" %amount

if (%amount != 0) goto begin | else goto end

I just added 3 check points, that display relevent data to that section into the status window. you should be able to see where its looping when it shouldnt.

ps ctrl-break should halt it.